High energy-efficiency Blast furnace lining solutions for Blast Furnace Smelting
During blast furnace production, iron ore, coke and slag flux (limestone) are loaded from the top of the furnace, and the preheated air is blown into the tuyere along the bottom of the furnace. In high temperature coke (some blast furnaces also spray pulverized coal, heavy oil, natural gas and other auxiliary fuels) in the carbon with the oxygen in the air combustion generated carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in the furnace rise process to remove the oxygen in iron ore, so as to reduce the iron. The molten iron is released from the iron hole. Unreduced impurities in iron ore combine with fluxes such as limestone to form slag, which is discharged from the slag mouth. The generated gas is discharged from the top of the furnace and used as fuel for hot blast stoves, heating stoves, coke ovens and boilers after dust removal. The main product of blast furnace smelting is pig iron, as well as the by-product of blast furnace slag and blast furnace gas.
The furnace shell is lined with a layer of 345 ~ 1150 mm thick refractory brick to reduce the heat dissipation of the shell, and cooling equipment is set in the brick to prevent the deformation of the shell. The damage mechanism of brick lining in different parts of blast furnace is different. In order to prevent the damage of local brick lining and shorten the life of blast furnace, different refractory brick lining must be selected according to the damage, cooling and blast furnace operation. The hearth and hearth traditionally use high-grade and super high-grade clay bricks. This part of brick is gradually melted, due to shrinkage and poor quality of bricklaying, often caused serious burning through accidents in the past, the furnace hearth, furnace bottom mostly used carbon refractory material, basically solved the burning through problem. There are three types of carbon bricks used in furnace bottom: all are carbon bricks; The bottom of the furnace is surrounded and upper carbon brick, the lower part is clay brick or high aluminum brick; The bottom of the furnace is surrounded by carbon bricks, and the upper part is clay bricks or high aluminum bricks. The latter two are also known as comprehensive hearth. The thickness of the designed hearth tends to decrease (from 0.5d right to about 0.3d or 1/4 of the inner diameter of the hearth, d is the hearth diameter). The disadvantage of carbon bricks is that they are vulnerable to air, carbon dioxide, water vapor and alkali metals. The furnace waist, especially the brick lining under the furnace body, is easily damaged due to wear, thermal stress, chemical erosion, etc. When the blast furnace with cooling wall is put into operation for about two years, the brick lining under the furnace body is often completely eroded. The lining of furnace body and throat brick should be made of materials with abrasion resistance and thermal stability, and clay brick should be preferred. After the brick lining of furnace belly is eroded, the production is maintained by slag skin.
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